What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

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What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

Walking around the center of Moscow, it is interesting to think about what was in this or that place in the Middle Ages. And if you know the true history of a particular district or street and imagine who and how lived here several centuries ago, the names of the districts and the whole view are perceived quite differently. And you already look at the Moscow center with completely different eyes ...
What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

1.

Arbat was an impregnable wall
The name of the district, the streets located in it (with the prefixes "New" and "Old"), as well as the square of the same name, came either from the Turkic word "arba" (cart) or from the Arabic "orba" (suburb). Indeed, earlier it was the border part of the city. At the end of the XVI century around the rapidly expanding Moscow suburbs built a fortress wall, lined with white stone, which served as the third defensive ring and was called the "Wall of the White City". It was very high, its lower part was a slope, and the upper part had a ledge, therefore it would be problematic for the enemy to shoot through the cannons.Loopholes with guns were directed downwards, and thus, the arrows could immediately hit anyone who came close to the foot of the wall. The white wall had 15 gates, which were carefully guarded.
What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?
At the Arbat gates of the White City at the beginning of the XVII century. Reconstruction V. A. Ryabova.
In the second half of the XVIII century, when the need for such protection of the city historically disappeared, Catherine II ordered to demolish the defensive walls and equip in their place boulevards, along which citizens could walk. But the gate of them for a long time remained standing, and it looked funny. As a result, they were removed because of decay, but the names remained (Arbat, Pokrovsk, Sretensk and so on). The Arbat Gate later gave the name of the square, the street and even the district. Initially, the area was inhabited by archers and artisans, but after the VIII century the nobility began to build houses here, and the area became prestigious.

2.

In Basmanny they made elite bread.
In the Basmannaya settlement, located to the north-west of Deutsche, palace bakers lived and worked who made delicious bread called “basman”. He was served at the royal table and handed out to servants of the sovereign, ambassadors and all who were entitled to state allowances. When baking at every basman they put a special stamp.In Tatars, such a seal (only applied to the skin or metal) was called "Basma" - hence the name of the loaves. And according to it the district became known in a similar way.
What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?
Old Basmannaya street before the revolution. /Photo:pastvu.com
By the way, there is a version that the name “scales” came from the word “basman”. This is due to the fact that all the bread-basman weighed the same.
At the end of the 17th century, officers of the Peter's regiments began to settle here, and a hundred years later, the city nobility began to inhabit the area. By the way, in the territory of the modern Basmanny district in the ancient time there were many more smaller settlements - pancakes, archers, syrmyatnikov, etc.

3.

Marsh as a place of execution and festivities
In ancient times there was a swampy meadow. Later, the locals set up princely and monastic gardens and vegetable gardens on the site of the swamps, and a large market appeared nearby. Local trade this area was until the beginning of the revolution. But the name associated with the former swamps here, has survived to this day.
What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?
This typical Moscow square of medieval times was seen by artist Apollinary Vasnetsov.
In the XV — XVII centuries. at this place, folk festivals regularly took place, which were invariably accompanied by fist fights.

4.

What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?
Pugacheva being taken to death. /Hud.T.Nazarenko
Also in Bolotnaya Square, the authorities carried out public punishments of the criminals and the death penalty. The last and, perhaps, the most famous execution at Bolotnaya was the quartering of Yemelyan Pugachev in 1775. This event gathered thousands of citizens. Onlookers sat even on the roofs of buildings.

5.

In Tverskoye, clay was mined and clowns lived
Once on this place, located outside the borders of Moscow, there was a quarry in which clay was mined. Pits and mines were called “clay”. Approximately in the XIV century, this craft gave the name of the adjacent locality and settlement to the settlement, and three hundred years later - and the temple, which was called the Church of St. Alexis the Metropolitan, which is on the Glinisches.
In the 1930s, the church was demolished, and Glinischevsky Pereulok was renamed Nemirovich-Danchenko Street, but in 1993 the old name was returned.
Next to this lane was the road to the city of Dmitrov. At the end of the XIII century, a settlement was built along it, which was inhabited by artisans of various professions and also buffoons. The overwhelming majority of its inhabitants were visitors from the Dmitrov edges. Hence the name - Dmitrovskaya Sloboda.
What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?
B.Dmitrovka in our century. /Photo :mosprogulka.ru
Beginning in the 16th century, in these parts, closer to the Moscow Kremlin, noble persons began to settle, and the authorities ordered artisans to get out of the way.They moved a little to the north, but along the same road, and their new settlement was called Malaya Dmitrovskaya. At the end of the XVII century, the inhabitants were relocated further north, and their settlement was called “New.” Thus, in the middle of the XVIII century, three streets of the same name appeared - Bolshaya and Malaya Dmitrovki and Novoslobodskaya.

6.

Earthen bank and moat planted with apple trees
At the end of the 16th century, the fourth ring of Moscow fortifications appeared on this site. It was made because of the threat of an attack on the city of the Crimean Horde Khan. A new, very modern by the standards of the wall lay about where the Garden Ring is now located. Her Muscovites were called “Skorodom” - apparently because it was built very quickly.
Fortunately, the Crimean enemies did not reach this wall, but in 1611 the Polish-Lithuanian troops erected from wooden towers and walls were burned down.
In the first half of the 17th century, an earthen embankment was erected on the site of the burnt down wall, along which ditches lay along both sides. The fortification was considered more impregnable than the defensive wall. Gradually Skul began to be called the Earthen shaft and the same name was given to the area itself between this fortification and the wall of the White City.
Here were located settlements of archers. For a time, the Earthen Val was the customs border of the city.
What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?
Earthen bank in our days. Photo: photo-moskva.ru
At the beginning of the last century, the shaft was razed as unnecessary. In its place, residents built streets and laid out gardens. Hence the names of several nearby streets with the prefixes "Garden".

7.

Okhotny Ryad as a symbol of abundance
Moscow has been famous for its trade rows from time immemorial. Okhotny among them was one of the most modest. As the name implies, they sold in it game, harvested during the hunt.
What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?
Apollinary Vasnetsov. Red Square in the second half of the XVII century.
In the 17th century, the Okhotny Ryad was located where the Historical Museum now stands, and as early as the next century, food shops, including hunting, were moved beyond Neglinka (now it is a section from Manezh Square to Teatralnaya Square).

8.

What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?
And Vasnetsov. Gun-foundry yard on the river Neglinnaya.
Gradually, residents began to call all local ranks Okhotny, because they began to sell the most valuable goods here. The range was very wide, and trade was both retail and wholesale. By the 19th century, the Okhotny Ryad became associated among the townspeople and guests of the capital with an abundance and full Moscow life.Right up to the onset of the revolution, he was a symbol of stability, giving rise to many popular proverbs.

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  • What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?

    What did the medieval center of Moscow look like?