Expertise is a specialresearch, interpretation and establishment of certain facts, as well as circumstances. To carry out this activity, it is necessary to have special knowledge in any scientific field, art or craft or craft.
Some types of expertise
Study of the document's limitation. In this case, physicochemical evaluation of the prescription of the signature, the impression of the seal, the authenticity of the record and other things is carried out. This research is carried out without damaging or changing the document with the help of special technology - spectrometry.
Handwriting examination is used in the study of the letter to establish certain characteristics of the person who executed the signature or wrote the text.
Forensic analysis is carried outto determine the partial or general forgery of documents. The objects of this study include the following documents: typewritten, hand-written, made by polygraphic methods. In addition, the research can be applied to writing instruments (markers, pens, pencils and other), materials (paper, ink and other), seals, tools used for etching texts. The objects of study can be classified as equipment, components for it, binding materials and so on.
As a rule, the above studiesare used as types of forensic examinations and are conducted in accordance with the definition of the court, investigative bodies or inquiry. However, such an assessment can be carried out in accordance with the civil law contract for laboratory research.
Engineering and technical expertise
The construction-technical assessment is used forcomplexes and separate objects, construction sites and their elements, certain territories, special zones, land plots that have a functional relationship with the objects of construction. The objects of research also include materials, structural elements, products, engineering systems, soil massifs, sanitary and technical devices, electrical equipment and so on.
Land survey is carried out inland plots, land plots for different special-purpose purposes, documents that confirm the ownership right, orders from territorial self-government bodies for the allocation of plots, land surveying, cadastral documents, acts of BTI.
Engineering and technological types of expertiserepresent different studies of complex equipment, its technical condition, attributes, defects, malfunctions, damages, circumstances and the causes of their occurrence. Thus, machines, machinery, equipment, lifts, elevators, aggregates, cranes, instruments, apparatuses are included in the evaluation objects. They also study technological lines, raw materials, materials, drawings, photographs and other
Computer-technical assessment isan independent kind of forensic examination. It refers to the engineering and technical category. It is carried out to determine the status of the object as a computer tool, to gain access to the available data on the media and then to conduct a comprehensive study of it. Objects of study include classes of hardware, software or information objects.
Phonoscopic types of examinations are used foridentification of a person whose speech is recorded on a phonogram, seized equipment for sound recording, determination of authenticity and authenticity of records. This research is also used to determine the method of making a record (original or overwrite), the facts of the presence of phonogram forgery, class, type of microphone and other.
Various types of environmental expertise are used as a legal measure to ensure compliance with certain environmental requirements.