Placental abruption: causes and effects

Placental abruption: causes and effects

 

Placental abruption is a serious complication during pregnancy, which can lead to serious consequences for the mother and baby..

It is with the help of the child that the mother receives all the necessary nutrients and oxygen, and any disruptions in her activities threaten the life and development of the child.

What are the important symptoms can not miss a pregnant woman and how to respond to them - in our today's material.

Placental abruption: the essence of the problems and causes

Premature detachment of a normally located placenta is an untimely separation of the placenta from the uterine mucosa. In the case of detachment, the functioning of the placenta is impaired until complete cessation. This condition occurs about 0.5% -1.5% of all pregnancies, 3 times more often in women giving birth for the first time.

Placental abruption can occur at any stage of pregnancy: both in the first trimester and in the third.

Premature detachment of the placenta does not arise without a cause, and there are quite a few situations that can lead to this difficult situation. Among the main causes of placental abruption, doctors cite the following factors:

  • maternal diseases (bleeding disorders, dysfunction or vascular diseases, hypertension (persistent increase in pressure), diabetes, pyelonephritis, thyroid diseases, anemia, etc.);
  • mechanical impact (blow or fall of a pregnant woman);
  • complicated course of pregnancy (toxicosis, preeclampsia, polyhydramnios, multiple pregnancies, pathology of labor activity);
  • stressful states;
  • age of the pregnant woman;
  • abnormalities of the structure of the uterus and its vessels;
  • tobacco smoking, alcohol use, drug addiction;
  • autoimmune form of detachment.

Placental abruption: symptoms

The main symptom of placental abruption is bloody discharge from the vagina. Of course, bleeding can be a symptom of less serious complications, but in this case it is better not to risk, and at the sight of blood, immediately consult a gynecologist.

Together with bloody discharge during pregnancy, placental abruption is often accompanied by a pulling pain in the lower abdomen, and the uterus tone can also increase.

If the area of ​​the detached placenta is serious enough, then the intensity of the bleeding increases, and the pregnant woman may develop weakness, dizziness, fainting.

To identify the site of detachment, to assess the condition of the fetus and uterus, you can use ultrasound.

It is believed that there are three degrees of placental abruption:

  • less than 1/3: with such a pathology and minor bleeding, the child does not suffer and there is every chance of continuing the pregnancy without complications;
  • detachment in half: more bleeding, it is also possible increased uterus tone, because of which, if you do not take emergency measures, the child risks dying from hypoxia;
  • complete detachment: if you do not take emergency measures, the child may die (in the second half of pregnancy, the question of premature delivery by caesarean section is raised).

Placental abruption: causes and effects - image №1

Read also: Degrees of aging of the placenta

Placental abruption: diagnosis and treatment

The main stages in the diagnosis are the examination of the future mother and ultrasound diagnostics.

At the reception, the doctor will check whether there is uterine bleeding, examine the vagina and cervix to diagnose infections and the absence of tears and tumors, assess whether there are cervical disclosures.

On an ultrasound examination, the doctor will refute or confirm the presence of a placental abruption, determine its area, the presence or absence of a retroplacental hematoma, and placenta previa.

In the future, the doctor will be guided by the data obtained during the examination and ultrasound, as well as such important parameters as: time of detachment, severity of bleeding and the amount of blood lost, the state of the mother and baby.

Obstetrician-gynecologist Sergey Vladimirov tells: "If the bleeding is abundant, the area of ​​the detachment is serious and the expected date of birth is already close - it is recommended that the pregnant woman immediately give birth. Most often, delivery occurs by caesarean section, but in the case of a small detachment, birth is possible naturally."

If the placental abruption is small, the period is insufficient, and the bleeding can be stopped - delivery is recommended to be postponed, weighing the ratio of the risk of premature birth and the risk of progression of the detachment.

A pregnant woman with partial detachment of the placenta is sent under the supervision of doctors to the hospital so that if the condition of the mother or the child worsens, proceed to delivery immediately.

Ultrasound examinations, Doppler and cardiotocography are carried out regularly for monitoring, and blood clotting is monitored with the help of laboratory tests.

One of the main conditions for the preservation of pregnancy in placental abruption is bed rest. It is also necessary to use medications to relax the uterus, antispasmodics, hemostatic agents, etc.

Placental abruption: causes and effects images, pictures

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  • Placental abruption: causes and effects

    Placental abruption: causes and effects


    Placental abruption: causes and effects

    Placental abruption: causes and effects


    Placental abruption: causes and effects

    Placental abruption: causes and effects


    Placental abruption: causes and effects

    Placental abruption: causes and effects


    Placental abruption: causes and effects

    Placental abruption: causes and effects


    Placental abruption: causes and effects

    Placental abruption: causes and effects


    Placental abruption: causes and effects

    Placental abruption: causes and effects


    Placental abruption: causes and effects

    Placental abruption: causes and effects


    Placental abruption: causes and effects

    Placental abruption: causes and effects


    Placental abruption: causes and effects

    Placental abruption: causes and effects


    Placental abruption: causes and effects

    Placental abruption: causes and effects


    Placental abruption: causes and effects

    Placental abruption: causes and effects


    Placental abruption: causes and effects

    Placental abruption: causes and effects


    Placental abruption: causes and effects

    Placental abruption: causes and effects


    Placental abruption: causes and effects

    Placental abruption: causes and effects


    Placental abruption: causes and effects

    Placental abruption: causes and effects


    Placental abruption: causes and effects

    Placental abruption: causes and effects


    Placental abruption: causes and effects

    Placental abruption: causes and effects


    Placental abruption: causes and effects

    Placental abruption: causes and effects


    Placental abruption: causes and effects

    Placental abruption: causes and effects


    Placental abruption: causes and effects

    Placental abruption: causes and effects


    Placental abruption: causes and effects

    Placental abruption: causes and effects


    Placental abruption: causes and effects

    Placental abruption: causes and effects


    Placental abruption: causes and effects

    Placental abruption: causes and effects


    Placental abruption: causes and effects

    Placental abruption: causes and effects


    Placental abruption: causes and effects

    Placental abruption: causes and effects


    Placental abruption: causes and effects

    Placental abruption: causes and effects