Shaman, according to religious beliefs,call a person who is endowed with unusual abilities, helping to communicate with spirits, asking for help from supernatural forces. Such people know how to enter the ecstatic state and cure diseases.
We will try to explain what a shaman is and howbecome. This word is taken from the Tungus-Manchu languages. This is the name of a person who has the ability to see a different reality and travel in it. Each nation has its own names for shamans, and also they are distinguished by categories. In Russia, the term "shaman" came about in the XVII century through written messages from Russians who served in Siberia. He formed the basis of the concept of "shamanism".
It is accompanied by the so-called "shamanicillness ". It means the transition to a new life through initiation rites, which include death and birth. During this "illness" shaman wanders through various worlds, knows their device, finds ways to communicate with spirits, gods, souls of deceased people. It is perceived as a special means by means of which the inner life is destroyed. Instead, it has the ability to hear and see more than ordinary people around, it becomes possible to make your life more perfect, to reach the highest state of spiritual knowledge.
The instruction how to become a shaman is not carried outonly by old shamans, but also by spirits during the "shamanic illness". It includes a spontaneous call and the techniques and knowledge transmitted during the rite of initiation. All this gives the shaman the power to act in accordance with the new knowledge of being that he brings to the world, and he also develops his own rituals. Usually, the initiation ceremony is held publicly. If you want to become a real shaman, you will need to go through all this, and as an assistant you need to find a shaman who will teach you.
Next, we will tell you who the shaman is and what hisrole in the ancestral society. His main task is to protect the mental integrity of people. The presence of a shaman in the tribe gave people the confidence that they will not remain without the help of the gods, because he can communicate with spirits, go down to Hell and overcome the "evil forces", illness and death.
The rite of healing a sick person is built onthe basis of man's belief in getting rid of the disease. It was accompanied by rituals, theatrical activities, sacrifices. Sometimes for the ritual, whole "theaters" were created. Each cult object of the shaman was a model of the universe and had a profound meaning.
After the ritual of dedication his whole lifeassociated with work in another world - the world of spirits (healing from disease, the challenge of natural phenomena, communication with the dead). All this is done in a trance state using a tambourine, special dances and spells.
Some believed that during such rituals the soul of the shaman himself leaves his body and begins to wander in the upper world (ascends to the sky) or the lower world (descends to the ground).
With increasing experience, shamans are able to enter intoSuch a state is already without auxiliary means. Shaman practice differs from magic in that it relies only on the forces of nature, and not on the artificial change of the world through its will. The shaman here acts as the conductor of these natural forces. Also, shamans are different from conventional healers, because they get knowledge of the useful properties of plants from spirits assistants.