During the time of the existence of civilization, as inthe ordinary level, and in science, there are many ideas about how the formation and development of the individual. This diversity is due to completely different approaches to comprehension and interpretation, as the objective driving forces of this development, and to the substantiation of mental impulses that guide the behavior of each individual individual and which are of a strictly subjective nature. In the study of the nature of personal development, it is important to understand the stages, regularities, and many other circumstances that, in one way or another, determine the formation and development of the personality.
Such, formed points of view, somany that modern science for better distinguishing them, uses the method of classifying theories of the development of man and personality for a number of common features for them.
Let us consider some of them in terms of fixing the most significant differences and scientific priorities.
Psychoanalytic theory considersthe formation of personality as a natural process in the course of which the natural adaptation of man to life takes place within the framework of that environment that is inherent in him as a biological species. As one of the founders of this concept, Z. Freud, argues, within the framework of this process, the genesis of certain protective functions and coordination with them, the human potential for satisfying needs, takes place.
In accordance with the concept of features, self-knowledge andpersonality development is associated with the process of intravital formation of personality characteristics, which in no way correlates with any of the known biological processes. Priority of factors within the framework of this doctrine is shifted towards social environment, society.
The concept of social learning in many waysrecalls that modern psychology and sociology is called the process of socialization. According to this view, personal development is, first of all, an uninterrupted process of mastering certain methods and methods of interaction and stereotypes of social behavior. At the same time, the forms of interpersonal interaction of people come to the fore.
Considering the formation and development of personality,psychology of the phenomenological sense and its humanistic direction interpret this as the movement of a person to his own "I-sample", moreover, the content of this sample remains extremely blurred and is predetermined not only by socio-cultural factors, but also by psychophysical ones.
In the second half of the last century, steelthe integrative concepts of the development of the individual are spreading and gaining increasing popularity. They do not yet have established names, therefore they can be found under the guise of an ecumenical view of human nature and the processes of its development, many of its aspects are present in cosmological constructions, an integrative approach is also applied in the framework of some theological teachings.
Integral concept tends to unitedifferent, already formulated points of view on how the formation and development of the individual is carried out. In its framework, an attempt is made to consider this process from the point of view of systemic understanding. One of the most famous theories of integrative development is the teaching of the famous American psychologist and sociologist E. Erickson. This scientist substantiated the so-called epigenetic principle, which is based on the hypothetical idea that the personality passes through the development of certain phases in the process of development, which in their content are characteristic of the whole of mankind. The next phase, as a rule, concludes with a crisis that fixes the achievement by the person of all the requirements that can be brought to him at this stage of development within the framework of this socio-cultural environment.
This formation and development of the personality of Ericksoninterpreted as an essential transformation of the inner world, a system of relations with the surrounding society and nature, which become easily observable features of the human character, its behavior and thinking. In total, such transition points-crises Erikson singled out eight, based on an analysis of the most important age changes that are characteristic of the overwhelming number of people. Estimating the concept of Erickson as a whole, it should be recognized that, claiming the role of an integrative view of the process of personality formation, it is not spared the influence of psychoanalytic theory.